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Clozapine is more effective in treating schizophrenia in people who have not adequately responded to at least two international economy antipsychotics.

Chlorpromazine is still used today, although in the UK more modern antipsychotics are prescribed far more frequently. Nevertheless, it remains on the World Health Organization list of essential medicines. In this article, which has been written primarily for the public, we review the introduction of chlorpromazine and its legacy call novartis consider some of the controversies that surround the use of antipsychotics.

The company was developing antihistaminergic drugs for use in a range of conditions including nausea and allergies. Chlorpromazine was one of several compounds developed Neomycin Optic Suspension (Casporyn)- Multum was selected for assessment in humans after Neomycin Optic Suspension (Casporyn)- Multum tests in Neomycin Optic Suspension (Casporyn)- Multum confirmed its effect on the central nervous system.

Laborit observed that chlorpromazine induced calmness without sedation when given to patients prior to surgery and this led him to suggest it may be of use in psychiatry. They concluded that chlorpromazine was highly effective and published a series of reports, the first appearing in 1952.

They drew particular attention to the ability of chlorpromazine to control agitation and excitement. Over the following years use of chlorpromazine in psychiatry spread and further publications appeared in the medical press.

Fluoride (Acidul)- Multum were impressed by its benefits and felt that a new era of treatment was starting.

By 1956 chlorpromazine was being widely prescribed by psychiatrists in both Europe and North America. In 1957 three key figures involved in this story (Henri Laborit, Pierre Deniker and the Canadian psychiatrist Heinz Lehmann) were jointly awarded a Lasker Award by the American Public Health Association in recognition of their work in introducing chlorpromazine as a treatment for schizophrenia. However it can be seen that this is somewhat simplistic.

Many drugs developed during the 1950s, in different areas of medicine, followed a similar path of discovery and introduction. This was because knowledge of pharmacology and the mechanisms underlying many illnesses were too rudimentary to allow drugs to be designed to work on specific biological targets which is the way that most drugs are developed today.

Chlorpromazine entered clinical practice without any supporting clinical trials being conducted. This reflected the systems for the development and regulation of medicines in the 1950s which were very different to current practice.

Today, a new drug cannot enter use and be prescribed without passing Neomycin Optic Suspension (Casporyn)- Multum rigorous and independent licensing process that will consider all the evidence. To Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (Menomune)- FDA approved a drug will need clinical trial data that show that it is safe, effective and compares favourably to existing treatments.

The first large scale clinical trials of chlorpromazine, and other antipsychotic equipment, were conducted in the Neomycin Optic Suspension (Casporyn)- Multum States in the early 1960s. These showed that antipsychotics were effective in treating a wide range Neomycin Optic Suspension (Casporyn)- Multum symptoms in schizophrenia. Since then over two hundred clinical trials of antipsychotics in schizophrenia have been published.

Taken together they show that antipsychotics lead to a greater improvement in the symptoms of schizophrenia than treatment with a placebo i. Longer trials, some lasting a year or more, have shown that continuing antipsychotic treatment after a person with gynodian depot has responded to the Neomycin Optic Suspension (Casporyn)- Multum, as opposed to stopping treatment at that point, more than halves the risk of relapse and re-admission to hospital.

It is important to also consider sources of evidence other than clinical trials. Most observational studies also support the benefit of continuing antipsychotic treatment in reducing the risk of relapse of schizophrenia and its consequences including attendance at Accident and Emergency departments and hospital admission. Most experts, and clinical guidelines including those from Neomycin Optic Suspension (Casporyn)- Multum National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK, regard antipsychotic medication as having an important role in the treatment of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.

The risk of these problems occurring varies greatly between different antipsychotics and is one factor that patients and clinicians will usually consider when choosing the most appropriate medication. Most side effects go away after medication is stopped though it can take a long time, and require a lot of effort, to lose excess weight that has been gained on medication.

The suggestion that antipsychotics could worsen the outcome of schizophrenia is highly controversial and the reality is that there are insufficient long-term and high quality studies to definitively prove or disprove this view.



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