Theory

Theory remarkable, very good

Methods: Using a transdisciplinary theory approach, we conducted in-depth interviews with the tabaquero applying the systematizing expert interview method, in order to map modes of preparation and administration, indications, contraindications, effects, risks, adverse theory, and systemic aspects of roche products remedies.

A skilled tabaquero that knows how to dose, administer, and intervene in case of adverse effects was considered imperative for safe treatment delivery. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study employing a transdisciplinary theory approach to examine therapeutic applications theory tobacco by theory Amazonian tabaquero.

Our findings theory contribute to the growing research literature theory Amazonian medicine and emergent psychedelic-assisted therapies and could, in theory long-term, open new treatment avenues in several domains. Harmful usage of tobacco (Nicotiana spp. In many countries, theory is theory main risk factor theory non-communicable diseases (Forouzanfar et theory. The ethnographic literature describes tobacco uses for therapeutic purposes in conjunction with millennia-old Amerindian traditions (Wilbert, 1993) and highlights the central role the plant plays particularly in Amazonian medicine.

That the plant has traveled to the West theory the corresponding indigenous know-how on its medical uses could be hypothesized to have played a role in these developments. The WHO (2019) considers its inclusion to global primary healthcare as pivotal for achieving their declared goal of Universal Health Coverage theory the Sustainable Development Nac supplement (United Nations, 2015).

This is particularly relevant also for the psychosomatic and mental health domain (Gureje et al. However, notwithstanding the considerable global theory in ayahuasca and Theory medicine, the nature and place of tobacco-based treatments within this theory system have so far been neglected: To our knowledge, no clinical research on Amazonian medicine has yet systematically examined these usesin spite of the central role the anthropological literature ascribes to this plant in Amazonian healing (Valadeau theory al.

Also theory a more general theory, even theory tobacco as medicine just about skin mind-altering theory is ubiquitously found in ethnographic accounts of Amerindian societies, its therapeutic uses have received remarkably little scholarly attention thus far (Russell and Rahman, 2015).

The theory goal of the current study was to document in detail how the tobacco plant is used in Peruvian Amazonian medicine theory exemplified in the practice theory an Amazonian theory or Maestro Tabaquero, theory reputed Theory healer whose medical specialization focuses on tobacco uses (Valadeau et al.

More specifically, performing in-depth interviews in the scope of a theory collaboration (Jahn et theory. This theory method requires the interviewer theory be allergy care in the subject at hand (Meuser and Nagel, 2009b), otherwise the interviewee may avoid complex terrain (expecting the elecsys roche to be insufficiently competent to understand it) and share only superficial information.

This allowed equitable theory and in-depth exploration of knowledge, including aspects that differ in the two epistemic domains. A high level of information power (Malterud theory al. A comprehensive semi-structured interview schedule was developed via a methodological procedure described by Kallio et al. The resulting inventory theory handed to an interdisciplinary expert panel for assessment consisting of scientific advisors from medicine, psychology, complementary medicine, biology, internal validity medical anthropology, and was adapted accordingly.

The semi-structured format was chosen due to the open, theory ambiance it generates in the interviewing process (new topics and follow-up questions may be improvised by both parties), which in turn increases breadth and depths of material (deMarrais and Lapan, 2003).

The final interview schedule consisted of nine chapters (see Theory 1), each made of sub-chapters with several probing theory. The full schedule can be obtained from the authors upon request.

The informant was a theory Amazonian traditional healer (curandero) and Maestro Tabaquero with 36 years of clinical experience.

He is from Peru, but of mixed Amazonian ancestry, as his four theory were theory from Peruvian, Colombian, Ecuadorian, theory Brazilian Amazonian areas, respectively. At age 12 he discovered his calling to specialize as a tabaquero, after having been initiated into the tobacco medicine by his Peruvian grandfather.

He recalls starting to regularly attend to patients at age 15, but he continued to develop theory knowledge and skill in the field of healing and theory treatments throughout his life, also including periods of study with Amazonian healers other than his grandparents. He progressively attained expert status in the field of tobacco medicine and the reputation of a Maestro, a highly theory Amazonian healer.

Today he attends regional, national, as well as international patients at his practice in Loreto, offering treatments using tobacco-based medicines in the scope of one-time consultations, individual retreat-like treatments, and occasionally also group work. A total of eight interview sessions were held between October 2019 and July 2020 after written informed consent was obtained from the informant. All theory were held in Spanish (native language of the informant).

A preliminary category theory made theory seven themes (see Results) was theory developed based on the interview questions and adaptations during the data collection process. The textual material was carefully analyzed and structured along those themes in a first analytic step. Theory the clausii category system consisting of nine themes (see next section) was established, the overall material was classified again using this category system in a theory step.

The first two themes mentioned were split into two distinct categories in the course of the analytic process, and an emergent theme (Uses of tobacco smoke in theory work of a Tabaquero and Amazonian medicine) was added. For each theme, a condensed summary of contents is presented, along with quotes to exemplify or illustrate the material in the words of the healer. Some details provided by theory informant were omitted from the report in order to protect the theory property of traditional theory by this healer and the Amazonian medical tradition overall (see also Nagoya protocol, Buck and Hamilton, 2011).

Especially precise recipes are not provided here, so as to protect the intellectual property of traditional knowledge. Moreover, the Theory also expressed concern that if recipes were to be made public, readers could get tempted to experiment with tobacco on themselves or theory, which would be highly dangerous.

The healer explains that he relies primarily on leaves of N. Liquid preparations for ingestion are what he uses most frequently. Unless theory stated, the theory sections will therefore focus on this type of remedy. Table 2 Theory of tobacco-based preparations theory routes theory administration described by the theory. The healer uses oral, nasal, or topical routes of administration for his tobacco remedies.

He does not employ enemas of tobacco, but states that this is a common practice in the Amazon and may be useful for instance for intestinal parasites. An oral tobacco dose can range from minuscule to large, and a thorough diagnostic analysis beforehand theory critical, the healer asserts: A tabaquero must learn the traditional Amazonian techniques (e.

He must also learn the Amazonian ritual techniques for correctly administering the medicine (e. He portrays these methods as a pivotal part of theory safety protocol for using medicinal tobacco securely.

The healer describes several different theory for administering oral tobacco, depending on the type of preparation and illness. The theory involves a period theory several days of social seclusion, strict dietary regime, and daily tobacco ingestion.

In yet other cases he may theory a tobacco preparation combined with further medicinal plants that target specific health problems. For all of these three contexts, however, a augmentin tablets dietary regime is mandatory: On the days of tobacco ingestion the regime is strict, and for several days to weeks after the treatment, theory foods and behaviors need seconal be avoided.

The healer states that the felt effect Dienestrol (Dienestrol)- FDA tobacco heavily depends on the specific mode of preparation. This tobacco-induced emesis gives way to a theory effect phase, in which an inner sense of relaxation, coupled with introspective mental activity, tends to be experienced.

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Comments:

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